The most beautiful fiddle is the Saw samsai; the three stringed spike bowed lute that had been used in the Thai ensemble for quite a long time probable before the Sukhothai period (1350). This instrument is played in a Mahori ensemble only; and sometimes being used also for accompanying a King's ceremony
Saw-Daung Image
Saw duang is a bowed stringed instrument. The sound box is made of hardwood with snake skin stretched over one face, the other being the sound hole. The stick is made from hardwood of 60 cm. long. Two tuning pegs are inserted into the top part of the stick in the same plane as the sound box. Two silk strings or guts or metal strings are stretched from the tuning pegs to the protrusion of the stick underneath the sound box. The two strings passing through a noose and over a bridge on the snake skin. The bow is about 50 cm. long, the horsehair of which is permanently place between the two strings. Saw duang has a high clear sound and thus acts as the leader of the string ensemble.
SAw-U image SAW-U
Saw-u has its sound chamber made of coconut shell. This fiddle has its bow laid down on the body between the two strings, one of which giving high pitch and the other low pitch, and being tuned in 5th perfect. The Saw-u has a sound chamber covered with normal cow skin, with a sound hole on the opposite side of the skin surfacing; being usually played in accompaniment of a Saw duang.

A plucking string instrument, which is approximately 20 cm. high and 140 cm. long, with its first two strings made of silk yarn and the last of brass. The player using his left hand for pitching the piece while striking the string by his right hand with an ivory plectrum tied to the index finger.

Khlui Image

Khlui is a bamboo recorder having seven blowing-out sound holes, of one and half octave. Khlui-u has the lowest pitches; Khlui pieng-o has the middle pitches; and Khlui lip has the highest pitches; but the specially high pitched one is the Khlui gruad or Khlui lip gruad. The Khlui is one of the musical instruments being used in a Mahori ensemble and String ensemble.


Pi is a read instrument with six out-blowing holes capable of a variating sounds to 22 pitches. The reed is made of a kind of palm leaf, called 'Bai tan'. It can imitate the human voice, and therefore, the player uses his tongue technique of playing to touch the reed, thus seeming to be talking' while blowing. There are many kinds of Pi, such as Pi nog, Pi nai, Pi klang, Pi jave, Pimon.


Ranad-ek, this is a type of xylophone in high pitches which consists of 21-22 wooden bars strung together into a bridging set, being hooked on top of a long resonant box by both ends making an oblong curved shape that looks like a boat. The bars can be made either of bamboo or a kind of hard wood called 'Mai ching chan'. Ranad- ek is played as the leading instrument of an ensemble; and its playing method has been known of developing into very high degree of skill, The Ranad- ek is usually played in styles, ie, one style called 'Mai khaeng' (hard sticks); and other is 'Mai nuam' (soft sticks). All kinds of Ranad- ek are tuned to final pitch by the addition of a mixture of beeswax and lead shavings being attached at spots underneath each bar being so tuned.

Rana-thume image

Ranad-thume, a low pitched xylophone is having 18 bars in the set. Its shape looks like a Ranad- ek, but lower and wider. This type is usually played in accompaniment of a Ranad- ek.

gong wong yai image

Gong wong yai is the main instrument of an ensemble, playing the principle melody. This type comprises of 16 kattles in one set and consisting of two main parts: Loog gong (a kattle): made of alloy for sound making. The kattle shape is similar to a little bowl being turned upside-down with a small dome on top; while the turning is done by attaching a lump of beeswax mixed with tin particles underneath, or in fact inside the bowl. Player strike "hammer" on the dome crest. Ruan gong (Gong house): can be made of rattan, wood, or even bamboo leavings in circular shape; having the gong kattles hanging on it with a specially knotted raw hide rope tying around and connecting them together.

gong wong lek image

This is a Gong set smaller but of higher pitch than which of the Gong wong-yai; being played by the same method, anyhow, but with different variation that is based on principle melody. Gong wong-lek comprises of 18 kattles

thone rammana

Thon: The Thon looks like a smaller Klong yao. It is made of carved wood or baked clay. The head is of hide held inplace by thongs fastened to the "waist" of the drum. The open opposite end flares out a little. The dimension of the waist is 12 cm. in diameter. The Thon is played with the Ram-ma-na. In certain instance two Thons are played simultaneously. Ram-ma-na: The Ram-ma-na is a single-faced shallow fram drum. It has a diameter of about 22 cm. and is used in the String ensemble.

glong khaek

Glong khaek : This drum is accompanying the Mahori, or a Pipat ensemble; and sometimes the String ensemble also. It is played with both hands. Sometimes it is arranged for play in pair; while one gives high pitch, and the other gives the low pitch.

glong songna image

This drum is shaped like a kind being used in the Puangmangkog set. It is always played with a Pipat ensemble. The Glong song-na is characteristically adorned with raw hide’s rope tying around its body